In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper.
Sometimes an author of a book, article or website will mention another person’s work by using a quotation or paraphrased idea from that source. (This may be called a secondary source.) For example, the Kirkey article you are reading includes a quotation by Smith that you would like to include in your essay.
The basic rule is that in both your References list and in-text citation you will still cite Kirkey. Kirkey will appear in your References list - NOT Smith.
You will add the words “as cited in” to your in-text citation.
Examples of in-text citations:
Smith (as cited in Kirkey, 2013) states that “even if euthanasia was legal, 42% of doctors would be against this method of assisted dying” (p. 34).
Example of Reference list citation:
Hunt (2011) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (p. 358).
According to Smith (2017), wearable technology will positively impact supply chains by improving worker safety and product quality.
Note: Although not required, APA encourages including the page number when paraphrasing if it will help the reader locate the information in a long text and distinguish between the information that is coming from you and the source. Check with your instructor to determine if page numbers are needed for your coursework.
|Number of Authors/Editors||First Time Paraphrased||Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased||First Time Quoting||Second and Subsequent Times Quoting|
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
|(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)||(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)|
|Three to Five||(Case, Daristotle, Hayek, Smith, & Raash, 2011)||(Case et al., 2011)||(Case, Daristotle, Hayekm, Smith, & Raash, 2011, p. 57)||(Case et al., 2011, p. 57)|
|Six or More||
(Case et al., 2011)
|(Case et al., 2011)||(Case et al., 2011, p. 57)||(Case et al., 2011, p. 57)|
If you quote or paraphrase from a source more than once in a paragraph, cite the source each time. Citing only once at the end of the paragraph isn't enough, as it doesn't clearly show where you started using information from another person's work or ideas.
Note: You can avoid having to write full in-text citations each and every time by using a lead-in to your paragraph. For a detailed example of how to use lead-in sentences, please see Rasmussen College's FAQ page
When you are citing two different sources that share the same author and year of publication, assign lowercase letters after the year of publication (a, b, c, etc.). Assign these letters according to which title comes first alphabetically. Use these letters in both in-text citations and the Reference list.
Paraphrasing content from first source by this author (Daristotle, 2015a). "Now I am quoting from the second source by the same author" (Daristotle, 2015b, p. 50).
Example Reference List entries:
Daristotle, J. (2015a). Name of book used as first source. Toronto, ON: Fancy Publisher.
Daristotle, J. (2015b). Title of book used as second source. Toronto, ON: Very Fancy Publisher.
If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. List the sources alphabetically by author's last name or first word used from the title if no author is given, in the same order they would appear on the References List, e.g.:
(Bennett, 2015; Smith, 2014).
(Brock, 2016; "It Takes Two," 2015).
For more information, see "How to Capitalize and Format Reference Titles in APA Style"